Appreciation for Sadie Roberts-Joseph’s letter of June 7, I would offer the following minor corrections. She stated that 11 Southern states seceded from the Union on the verge of the Civil War. Not so. Seven states had withdrawn from the Union. Four upper south states, Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas and Virginia, only seceded following U.S. President Abraham Lincoln’s call to supply troops to suppress the rebellion, following the firing upon Fort Sumter.
Secondly, the 13th Amendment was passed by the U.S. Senate in April 1864, by the U.S. House in January of 1865, and was not adopted and ratified until December of 1865, so until that time, slavery still retained some legal standing within the United States of America, well after the demise of the Confederacy in May 1865.
Juneteenth rightly commemorates the historical fact that on June 19, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation was addressed to recently freed slaves at Galveston, Texas.
retired railroad employee
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